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What is bacteremia? What is the clinical significance of blood culture?
The immune system is an important system for the human body to perform immune responses and immune functions. It is the most effective weapon against the invasion of pathogens. It can detect and remove foreign matter and foreign pathogenic microorganisms. When microorganisms invade the blood and multiply rapidly beyond the immune system's scavenging capacity, they form bacilli. Symptoms or fungalemia.
Bacteremia is one of the most common critical illnesses in the hospital. The mortality rate is as high as 20%-50%. The detection of microorganisms in the blood of patients has important clinical significance for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of infectious diseases.
Blood culture is the most important means for the diagnosis of bacteremia. The bacteria isolated from the blood may be the cause of sepsis. This provides an important basis for the diagnosis of the cause and can provide further evidence for correct antibiotic treatment; positive blood culture also indicates The body's action to limit the infection and a particular area has failed or the spread of local infection.
Blood culture-related items: bacteremia, fungal blood culture, mycobacterial culture, catheter-related bloodstream infection, and infective endocarditis.
What are the symptoms of blood culture?
Fever (>38°C), hypothermia (< 36°C), leukocytosis (> 10.000/μl) neutropenia (< 1.000/μl), hypotension, local infections: pneumonia, urinary tract infection, meningitis , sudden debilitating children or the elderly, weakness, mental disorders, sudden loss of weight in the elderly, renal insufficiency, unexplained leukocytosis and altered mental status, immunocompromised patients, CRP, PCT.
At present, the positive rate of blood culture is low. According to related statistics, the positive rate of blood culture in China is about 10%-18%, and the level of positive rate is related to many factors.
1, skin preparation and pollution prevention (disinfection, blood culture acceptable pollution rate is ≤ 3%)
2. When the specimen is collected (Bacteria enters the blood stream 1 hour before chills and fever)
3, blood volume (adult 20-30ml, for infants, the amount of blood collected does not exceed 1% of the total blood volume of the patient, the increase in blood volume will increase the positive rate)
4. Allocation in aerobic and anaerobic bottles (a blood culture should include 1 aerobic and 1 anaerobic bottle)
5. Specimen transshipment (sent to the laboratory immediately after completion of the collection; blood culture bottles after inoculation shall not be frozen or frozen; any delay in the automatic continuous monitoring of the blood culture apparatus will delay or prevent the detection of bacterial growth)
Biomerieux's BacT/ALERT3D blood culture system uses a non-invasive color detection principle. The unique threshold algorithm solves bottleneck false-negative errors. Bacteria and fungi can be cultured simultaneously in a single flask. The elimination of the missed rate of fungalemia, greatly increased the positive rate of specimens, is a good helper for the microbial chamber.
Blood specimens are VIP specimens of the microbiology laboratory and are of great help to clinical treatment. However, blood culture specimens account for a very low amount of specimens in the microbiology chamber and should attract enough attention from us so that we can be responsible for the clinic and patients.
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