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The Significance Of Clinical Microbiology
Jul 06, 2017

Clinical microbiology is a science that studies the morphology, structure, classification and life of microbes, including bacteriology, virology, and mycology. Clinical Microbiology Is one of the foundations of clinical medicine to guide the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases.

Clinical microbiology is a bridge between the foundation and the clinical discipline.

The tasks of clinical microbiology tests include: 1 Study of pathogen characteristics of infectious diseases: 2 provide rapid and accurate pathogen diagnosis; 3 guide the rational use of antimicrobial agents; 4 to monitor the hospital infection.

① to study the pathogenic characteristics of infectious diseases; ② to provide fast and accurate disease

The original diagnosis; ③ guide the rational use of antibiotics; ④ monitoring hospital infection.

Basic tasks of microbiology testing:

① study the specimen collection, Clinical Microbiology delivery and preservation methods, as well as the treatment of specimens to improve the detection rate of the relationship.

② the detection of pathogens of various infectious diseases, the selection of the best methods, the identification procedures of various pathogenic microorganisms and the identification process of bifidobacteria, quality control.

③ the rapid diagnosis of various pathogenic microorganisms, Clinical Microbiology automated equipment and the use of micro-system.

④ implementation of international standard operating procedures and methods to do antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

⑤ Results analysis, evaluation of experimental methods and clinical significance.

The significance of clinical microbiology

From the relationship between microbes and common diseases, frequently occurring

1. Tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, dental caries and periodontal disease, Clinical Microbiology sexually transmitted diseases, etc. are caused by pathogenic microorganisms

(1) tuberculosis

1/3 population (about 2 billion) infected with tuberculosis, Clinical Microbiology if not take measures, nearly 10 years there are 300 million people infected;

Tuberculosis patients 20 million

95% in developing countries

800 to 10 million new cases each year, 75% of the age of 15 to 50 years old

Every day died of tuberculosis 8000 people, 3 million per year, 98% in developing countries

Infection rate was 44.5% (2000 survey), infected by 550 million

Existing tuberculosis patients (active) 4.5 million people

Died of tuberculosis each year 12.7 million people, died in rural areas 9th, single disease first. Of which 21.6% had never received treatment.

(2) viral hepatitis

There are a variety of to B, hepatitis C the greatest harm. Only hepatitis B infection rate of 10% or more, that is, more than 100 million HBsAg carriers, chronic hepatitis B patients more than 30 million.

(3) dental caries and periodontal disease

WHO is listed as the only three major focus on cardiovascular disease and cancer prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases

Caries caused by Streptococcus mutans, periodontal disease caused by anaerobic bacteria

The prevalence of dental caries in our country was 13.9%

(4) STDs

AIDS: the global total of 36.1 million patients by the end of 2000, the number of deaths reached 21.8 million, 95% in developing countries.

China's first half of 2002, the total number of infected has reached 100 million, if not take effective measures in 2010 will reach 10 million people.

There are other gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts, non-gonococcal urethritis, Clinical Microbiology the incidence has a greater growth.

On the reasons of the death of our residents

The first five causes of the city

① malignant tumor 135.59 / 10 million

② cerebrovascular disease 111.01 / 10 million

③ heart disease 95.77 / 10 million

④ respiratory disease 72.64 / 10 million

⑤ damage and poisoning 31.92 / 10 million

The top five cause of death in rural areas

① respiratory disease 133.42 / 10 million

② cerebrovascular disease 112.62 / 10 million

③ malignant tumors 105.36 / 10 million

④ heart disease 77.72 / 10 million

⑤ damage and poisoning 63.69 / 10 million

(1) infection is one of the important causes of death

Microbial infection is an important cause of death.

Cancer patients themselves low immunity, prevention and control of infection is very important, such patients are likely to cause death infection.

Respiratory diseases: mainly infections.

Injuries include trauma, burns, etc. Infection control is extremely important

Cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, etc., are also prone to infection.

(2) pathogenic microorganisms are closely related to certain tumors

HCV, TTV are related to liver cancer

Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer

HCMV is associated with neuroblastoma, Wilm tumor, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, testicular cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, colon cancer and so on. HSV-2 is associated with cervical cancer.

(3) the relationship between pathogenic microorganisms and heart disease

Rheumatic heart disease - hemolytic streptococcus

Viral myocarditis and pericarditis - coxsackievirus B group

Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with coronary atherosclerosis and heart disease

A chain and Staphylococcus aureus can cause acute and subacute bacterial endocarditis

From the social harm caused by the disease

The greatest impact on the community, the greatest harm is hepatitis, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases and other infectious diseases

(1) has a high infectivity, infection rate and morbidity;

(2) causing social problems, such as schooling, job hunting, marriage, Clinical Microbiology children and many other issues are involved;

(3) the lack of effective treatment;

(4) cause people to panic, the patient's inferiority and despair;

(5) spend a lot of money prevention and treatment.

Look at the duties of our military

The danger of war still exists, there is the possibility of using biological weapons.

Modern molecular biology can be made into more and more difficult to prevent biological weapons.

War prevention and control of infection, epidemic prevention and control, are our responsibility.

From the specific medical practice

1. Aseptic concept

Surgical instruments, infusion caused by infection is not uncommon,

Blood transfusion caused by hepatitis B, hepatitis C, sexually transmitted diseases

Bone marrow or organ transplant patients infected

2. The application of antibiotics - bacterial resistance is very prominent

Should be bacterial isolation and culture, drug sensitivity test, the choice of medication

3. Difficult diagnosis - clinical clear or exclude pathogenic microorganisms

Fever to be investigated, meningitis, the identification of pleural effusion, pulmonary tuberculosis or other infections and identification of lung cancer